What is Object Oriented Programming

What is object-oriented programming?

The concept of “objects,” which can contain both code and data in the form of fields (commonly referred to as attributes or properties), and code in the form of procedures, is the foundation of the computer programming model known as object-oriented programming (OOP), which organizes software design around data (often known as methods).

What does object -oriented programming look like?

Let’s now examine each of the main components of an OOP in more details.


In nutshell classes are essentially user defined data types. They act as blueprint of methods and attributes.


while Class is the blueprint of the structure that allows us to group data and methods, object is an instance from the class created with specific data.


Attributes are defined in the class template and represent the state of an object


They are the functions in a class that explain an object’s behaviors.

What are the four pillars of object-oriented programming?

The four fundamental ideas of object-oriented programming are encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism.

Let’s examine each of them now.


To enclose anything is what the verb “encapsulate” means. Encapsulation in OOP functions similarly to how a pill’s covering “encapsulates” or isolates the medicine inside from the rest of the. This means that only particular data about an item is made public. Greater program security is provided by this aspect of data masking, and undesired data is avoided.


When an item is abstracted, the user only interacts with a portion of its attributes and methods.

The benefits of abstraction are as follow:

  • High-level, uncomplicated user interfaces
  • Complex codes are hidden
  • Security


Polymorphism is the process of creating items that have the same behaviours. It allows different types of objects to pass through the same interface.

What are the examples for object -oriented programming languages?

Simula is known as the first object-oriented programming language, although dynamic programming languages have become particularly popular in recent years.

Eg: Python, PowerShell, Ruby and Groovy

In addition to the ones mentioned above, object-oriented programming languages like C++, Emarald, and Scala are also used.

Advantages of object-oriented programming


Code can be reused through inheritance, meaning a team does not have to write the same code multiple times.


Since encapsulation and abstraction are used the complex codes are hidden. As a result, it safeguards internet protocols.

OOP also offers the advantages of efficiency, scalability, and reused code.

Drawbacks of object-oriented programming

Each and every thing in this world has a negative side too.

So then let’s talk about disadvantages of OOP.

  • Because using OOP is a little bit challenging, programmers need to have excellent designing and programming skills together with careful preparation.
  • OOP treats everything as an object, so prior to using it, we must have outstanding object-oriented thinking.


Planning and analysis of the program’s structure must be made before beginning coding in object-oriented programming. Looking at how to break up the requirements into simple, reusable classes that can be used to blueprint instances of objects. Overall, using OOP enables for better data structures and reuse, which ultimately saves time.

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